Paper: Designed Synthesis of 3D Covalent Organic Frameworks

Authors: H. M. El-Kaderi, J. R. Hunt, J. L. Mendoza-Cortés, A. P. Côté, R. E. Taylor, M. O'Keeffe, and O. M. Yaghi

Citation: Science, 2007316, 268-272

DOI: 10.1126/science.1139915

Abstract: Three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (3D COFs) were synthesized by targeting two nets based on triangular and tetrahedral nodes: ctn and bor. The respective 3D COFs were synthesized as crystalline solids by condensation reactions of tetrahedral tetra(4-dihydroxyborylphenyl) methane or tetra(4-dihydroxyborylphenyl)silane and by co-condensation of triangular 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene. Because these materials are entirely constructed from strong covalent bonds (C-C, C-O, C-B, and B-O), they have high thermal stabilities (400° to 500°C), and they also have high surface areas (3472 and 4210 square meters per gram for COF-102 and COF-103, respectively) and extremely low densities (0.17 grams per cubic centimeter).